These studies are designed to clarify a field of legal study and professional practice that has begun to emerge only in recent times. The choice of sanction is frequently carried out in improvised, confused, and even contradictory fashion. The main questions that the authors try to answer are: Why bother to extend the meaning of the term sanction to include so much? What do we expect to see accomplished? Arens and Lasswell show that many sanctioning arrangements now current in the U.S. are on their face inconsistent with the articulated goals of the American system of public order, and that in actual operation the goals of our system suffer chronic and substantial defeat.